Blender 2.8 Beginner Tutorial – Part 8: Materials

– [Zach] Welcome to the eighth video of the Blender 2.8
beginners tutorial series. This video is all about getting
into working with materials. We will have a look at the
brand new LookDev mode. Which allows us to quickly
preview our materials in the 3D Viewport. Then we
will have a look at the basic materials settings and
the principle Shader. Then we will have a look
at the Shader Editor and after that we will use
our new gained knowledge to create the material for
the apple and the knife to make these two objects look beautiful. As always you can find the time stamps in the video description below. And if you want to follow
along you can sign up to our resource section free
of charge to get access to all the blend files, textures and videos of this free course. And you can also download our
handy Blender 2.8 shortcut PDF, the link you’ll find down below in the video description. Hi everyone I’m Zach here for and let’s get started. All right, now let’s only focus
on the UV Unwrapped models like the apple and the knife over here. So for now let’s hide the fabric
and also the bowl and again let’s recenter this apple
here and put it up a bit. And in order to start the
shading process, first of all let’s click on this little
button here which enables the LookDev mode. The LookDev
mode basically adds a lighting set up toward the ceiling
and it will also show us all the properties of the
materials when we add materials to our objects. Right
now all these objects don’t have materials. That’s
why they are just gray. So and if I click on this
little arrow up here and on this ball, I can choose between
different lighting set ups for my scene. So for example
I can choose this one and you can see how this
changes the lighting in the scene here. And that’s
really important when you create a material, to check
this in different lighting conditions. To see if the
material looks good in different environments basically. So
when you create an object for an animation and while
the animation is running the lighting changes or
you have different scenes with the same objects.
You need to make sure that this object always looks
good. Because the lighting has a big effect on how the
object looks and that’s why it is important to check
different lighting set ups. So let’s start with this
one here because this is relatively neutral and in
order to add a material to an object, all you
need to do is to click on this little button here
tool, the material tab. Don’t confuse this with the
world tab which looks quite similar and then click on
new to add a new material. First of all in order to know
what material belongs to what object let’s click in here
and let’s call it apple. Then in Blender we are
working with so called Shader. Each Shader has different
properties and in order to change the Shader you click behind
surface on this principle BSDF. If I click on that you can see we have a Shader list over here. Here we have for example a diffuse Shader for a simple color. A glossy
Shader for reflective material and emission Shader for glowing objects. We also have a mixed Shader to mix two different Shaders together. And so on and so forth.
But luckily we don’t need that many Shaders anymore
because we have this principle Shader which is also enabled
by default because this is basically one kind of uber
Shader which includes all the other stuff. So basically
with this one Shader we can create glossy and glass
and diffused materials, all in one Shader. So basically
you don’t need to switch anything because down here
we have all the settings for the principle Shader
because the principle Shader is enabled over here. So now when you look at
all the settings down here this might be a little bit overwhelming. But since we only need very
few of them you will see that this is actually not that complicated. So let’s take a look at the most important settings here for us. First
of all the base color. If I click on this white
field I can change the color and also the brightness. So, pretty easy. Then, the second most important
value is the roughness over here which defines how
rough the surface should appear. So basically this will
blur out the reflections in the object. If I set
this to zero as you can see then we have a perfect
smooth reflective surface and if I set this to the
higher value then you can see this appears to be really rough. So depending on what kind of
object you wanna create either a reflective plastic for example
you know you use a very low roughness value or for concrete
ground you probably use a very high roughness value. Then the next important value
is the metallic. So, if this value is set to zero, we basically have a non metallic material. So
basically everything which is not metallic. But if we
wanna create a metallic object we have to set this value
to one. Then you can see the appearance of the object
changed and if I now play around with the roughness you
can see that this really looks like a metallic apple right
now. So also pretty easy. Let’s set this back to zero
and the last thing I want to show you here is the transmission value if I set this to one. We
basically have a glass material. So we have this nice refraction
in here. Right now it’s only refracting this image here
which is basically put into the background of our scene
and lights up our scene. But this is hidden here in the 3D Viewport so we can’t really see
it but we can see it here through the refraction but
we can’t see the ground for example or the
knife in the background. And this we have to enable
manually for the view port, the real time display of our
scene. For that scroll down here in the materials
settings. Go to settings and enable screen space refraction. And to make this work in general we have to go to the render settings. Enable screen space reflections
then you can see we already have this nice real time
reflections on the object and if I open this up we also have
to enable the refractions. And now as we can see also,
the ground and the knife will be incorporated into the refraction. So let’s go back to the material and that’s basically everything. So the base color, metallic,
roughness and transmission. So now I want to show you
how to add a simple texture to the object here. So first
of all let’s set transmission down to zero, also
metallic should be zero. We just want to have a standard
material and instead of the base color we want to use the
texture. And for that we click on this little dot behind the
color and here in the textures category we choose image
texture. Now we can see the color will be replaced with a texture
and now we can either open this from our hard drive,
create a new plain image or we can take a look into the
library because every image we load into Blender. No matter
it is in the texture paint mode or for the textures or
anywhere else, Blender will put the information into an
image library and will remember everything we loaded into blender. So we don’t have to import
this image once again because the apple paint image is still in here. So simply click on that and
then this will be attached to the base color of this Shader. So let’s close this and now
you can see this apple has now this nice texture and this will
also display here perfectly in the 3D Viewport. So this
apple object now has a simple very flat surface which is
reflective. So that means we can play around with the roughness
here to kind of match the look with a real apple but
what’s really missing here are the imperfections. That
means that the reflection is not everywhere the same and
maybe we have little bumps here and there on the surface
and this we also can create using our materials. But for
that I won’t recommend to use this material tab here.
Because we basically can do everything here we
can add more information if I click on those dots here. But
basically all the information we add will just be listed
underneath each other and then you will just have a
long list with a lot of values and you will get totally
confused. So I don’t recommend to do more than adding a
simple texture and changing the base values here. For everything else we need the Shader Editor.
And for that we simply go over here to the shading
workspace. As you can see here in this shading workspace we
have a different arrangement of windows and editors. Up
here we have our 3D window also with the LookDev
mode enabled by default. So don’t be confused with this
little balls here which is basically just a perfect
reflective ball and a white ball which shows the interaction
with the lighting set up which can be helpful as
reference compared to what we create here. But for now you
basically can ignore those. Then over here we have the
file browser open if we want to add textures but we will
do it a bit differently so we can right click on
the edge here and click on join area and left click on
this window to remove this. And down here we have the
image editor enabled but also we don’t need it here so right
click on the edge, join area, and we move it. But what we
need here is the Shader Editor which is open down here so if
I click on that we can see the Shader Editor is enabled. And
the Shader Editor is basically just a different way to show
everything we set up here in the material tab. So
everything I do over here, for example let’s quickly
change the roughness and you will see that the
roughness over in the Shader Editor will change as well.
Because everything here is basically mirrored over here.
Just in a different way. Here we use these nodes and
the nodes are driven by input and output. So let’s left
click somewhere to deselect everything and then left
click and hold to move a node around. This thing here is
the texture I’ve blocked into the base color and you can
see that we have the texture here, apple paint. And
the color output so always the stuff on the right side
of a node is the output is plugged into the input
on the left side here of this principle Shader.
So here we have a texture, here we have a Shader and
everything which is calculated inside the Shader will be
outputted over here and will be transferred to the material
output node and connected to the surface which basically
means that everything we do here will finally
show up on the surface of this selected object.
Just for your understanding, everything you see down here
or over here is dependent on the selected object. So if
I select the ground here you can see we don’t have any
material yet. That means over here nothing will show up. If
I select the apple you can see the connected apple
material will show up here and here in the Shader Editor as well. So, and the Shader Editor
compared to this menu over here is way more clear since
every aspect we added to the node tree here will be
clearly visible all the time. So here for example if I
open the texture setting it will just be placed somewhere
here in between all the other menus and sliders and settings.
And it’s not really clearly visible what belongs to what.
But over here we can see clearly that this is our apple
paint texture and we know exactly which settings
belong to this node here or to this texture. And we
can also see very clearly the relationship of this texture
to all the other nodes here with the connections.In order
to connect or disconnect nodes you simply left click and
hold on an input node, move it out and release your mouse button. Then this will be disconnected.
Now you can also see that we still have the texture
node but it’s not connected with the base colors and then
we only see the base color we set up here on the final
model because this node sends the information to
the surface of the object. In order to connect nodes
we left click and hold on an output dot here and
simply move the noodle, this line is called noodle,
to the input and release your mouse and then this will
be connected. You can also quickly disconnect two nodes by holding down Control+
Rightclick and hold and cut this. So this works as well. Then you can see that we have
different colors for the input and output. This is also
important basically these colors define which colors we can
connect to what other nodes. But this we will learn while we are going. So right now we just have the texture. We have the principle Shader
and the output node so that we can see everything over
here. But as mentioned I want to make the apple look
a little bit more interesting. When you download texture packs online, for example
They will ship not only with the diffuse colors or the basic color but also with different maps.
Like a bump map, a normal map, a specular map, a roughness
map and all these things. All these maps you basically
can put into the Shader Editor and plug them into the right
spot of the principle Shader and then everything looks
perfect. However in our case we have a custom made texture. So we texture painted the
apple, we have a UV Map, and we don’t and we don’t
have have all these maps. There are certain tools we can use or Photoshop tweak. Everything
so that we have kind of the other maps but this is a time
consuming process and this is nothing I wanna discuss in
this video. But I wanna show you a quick and easy way
how you can kind of mimic the effect of different
maps on the model here. With a quick and cheap set
up. But in the end it’s just important how the final scene looks like. It doesn’t have to be super
realistic but just has to look really good. So, down here we can add more nodes by clicking the add button
here and then we have different categories. For
example here in the Shader we can also find the principle Shader
and as soon as I click on one of those nodes. This will
be added, it now sticks to my mouse cursor and with
left click I can place it. With x or delete I can simply
delete the selected node. I can also box select
multiple and then left click and hold on them and move them around. Let’s left click somewhere
we can deselect everything . By holding the mouse wheel
we can zoom in and out and with middle mouse
button clicked we can pan the view here. So
pretty straight forward. Instead of clicking the add
menu similar is for the 3D view over here we can also hit
Shift+A. This also worked in the 3D view, this also works
down here. And in this case it’s very important to
understand that the shortcuts we press only works in the editor where our mouse cursor is.
So if I move my mouse cursor up here into the 3D view,
press Shift+A, you can see it opens the add menu for the 3D view. And if down here I press
Shift+A it opens the add menu for the Shader Editor. And
this applies to also for all the other editors if I use a
certain shortcut for example over here I press Shift+D
because I want to duplicate the apple but you can see nothing happens. But if I press over here Shift+D the apple will be duplicated.
So always take care of where your mouse cursor is. So down
here let’s hit Shit+A and the first thing I need is
under converter the color ramp. So I will just add a bunch
of nodes while we discuss all the stuff here and
these nodes seems to be kind of random and really strange to you. And this is totally fine but
in the end you will see that you’ll use certain nodes
over and over again. And for creating very simple
Shaders and materials, you don’t need much nodes.
So the few nodes we will use in this scene is, in most
cases when you create simple materials, everything you need. So I will explain all
the nodes we add here and what they are doing. So
first of all this is a color ramp node. We can see we have
this black and white gradient over here. And what we can use
this for is we can basically pluck the color of the
apple paint texture, so left click and hold put
this into the fac value down here, you can see this will be replaced. And now if I temporarily
connect the color output with a base color we can see what happens inside of this node. This
node uses a color output. This yellow dot always
means color. This we connect with a gray input. Gray always
means numeric or gray scale. This will basically convert
the color into gray scale using the color ramp here. And
with these two colors, the black and the white, we
define what color the white values of the texture
should have and the dark. So basically all the dark
values are now black and all the bright values are white or brighter. So, you could also change the
colors here. We can make it brighter and make this blue
and this one for example red. Now the brighter values use
the reddish color here and the dark values the blue color.
So let’s undo this because I want to have black and
white. So when I now left click on those handles, hold and
move them around you can see that I can change the values.
Basically if I add more black here you can see that
we also add more dark values to the textures. Or the other
way around, if I put the right value over here everything gets brighter. And what do we need this color ramp for? Certainly not for the
color. We don’t want to have a black and white apple
here. We want to have this for the roughness. So let’s
reconnect the color of the texture with the base color
of the principle node. And now we wanna output the
color ramp and input this into the roughness. But before
I do that, let’s quickly take a look a the roughness value.
If I set the value down to zero you can see we have a
perfect reflective surface. If I put this to one we have
like very rough surface. And the numbers zero and
one in value means basically zero black and one white.
And everything in between are gray scale values. So if we
take a look at this color ramp again, we now have
dark spots on this apple and bright spots. And that
means on the dark spots we basically have a roughness
value of zero or in general a very low value. And
on all the bright spots we have a relatively strong value. So the roughness is stronger.
So if I now connect this with the roughness you can
see that this slider here will be replaced by our
roughness map. So now let’s reconnect the color and now
let’s play around here a bit. And you can see how this
is changing the surface. So, you can see in some areas
we have a little bit more glossiness and in other areas
not. And in the end I want to have a very wet looking apple
because we will add some physical raindrops to the apple later on. So we kind of need some
glossiness here and there. So I play around with
these values until this looks good to me. What we also
can do is we can select the dark values, click on the
color down here and just make them brighter. That means we
make the dark values brighter that means we add more roughness
to the very glossy areas. So that means no area
here is like 100% glossy. We will tweak these values
later on when we get to the lighting and rendering process
so that from the camera perspective everything looks perfect. What we also can do all
the time is to check other lighting conditions and
to see how the apple looks in other lighting conditions. When we take a look at a real
apple you can see that we have all these tiny little bumps
and scratches which makes the surface uneven but here in
blender as you can see we still have a perfectly flat surface.
And that’s why we want to add a bump map. But as
mentioned before since this is a custom made texture and we
don’t have used any other tool we don’t have a bump map. A
bump map is basically just a black and white image. White
means that we basically pull out the surface and black
means we push them inwards. And here again, similar as
for the roughness we will use a cheap trick. First of all
I hit Shift+A, go to vector add a bump node. And the
bump node has a hide value. And here we simply use the
color of our apple texture, plug this into the height,
and then we simply need to connect the normal output of
the bump node with the normal input of the principle Shader. Now you can see what happens.
Basically we are using the values of this texture
put them into a bump node and this will kind of calculate
the height of each pixel of the texture. So all the
bright values are pushed out and all the black values are pushed in. Certainly, since we have
a little bit of shadows on the texture and some
areas of the textures are just a bit brighter than
others, just from the color. This means that this is not
realistic at all. However, if I reduce the strength
here quite a bit then we have these very tiny little
bumps on the surface. And since they are so small
it doesn’t have to be super realistic but it totally adds
to the realism of the apple. So now the surface is not perfect anymore. So, you can play around with
the settings. I will probably play around with these little
bit more later on but for now I think 0.025 is a quite
good measure I think. And with these few nodes here
we created a semi realistic surface for the apple. But I
think when we’re just starting out here this looks
already pretty awesome. All right, now I quickly want to add a material to the knife. And since we’ve set up
everything here already and the knife should have
a pretty similar set up. We don’t need to set up everything again. So what I do, I select
the handle of the knife. And whenever we create a
material in blender this will be added to a material library
inside of this blend file. So that means if this is
selected I can go to the material tab and instead of creating
a new material I take a look into the library by clicking
this button. And here you can see we have the apple material.
Let’s click on that and then this will be connected
to this handle as well. Certainly the textures not
fitting since we have a different UV Map but we have all the
settings down here already. However, the problem is if I
now change anything down here this will also be changed on
the apple. Because this is not a new material we have
created this is just the same material we used
on the apple also connected to a second object. So
you basically can connect one material to as many
objects as you like and as soon as you change anything on the
material it will be changed on all the objects. However we
wanna use this as foundation and then tweak this a bit.
And this we can do over here. You can see we have a two
which means two objects are using the material. Now
let’s simply copy this material by clicking this button and
then you can see the name has changed and in the library
we now have two materials. Let’s call this knife handle
and let’s replace the texture. What I could do, I could click
on this button and then open a new image but I also want
to show you a different way to add an image here to the Shader Editor. So let’s delete this one here. And what we can do basically
here, we can take a look in our texture folder and simply drag
and drop this image into the Shader Editor. Then as you
can see a new texture node will be created. Or, you simply
hit Shift+A go to texture and click on image texture.
Then you have to click open and open the file you want to load into this image texture
node. But this we can avoid by simply dragging and
dropping this here then this is already connected with the
texture on our hard drive. So, let’s reconnect this to
the base color and to the color ramp, and also to the bump node. So first of all let’s increase
the bump a little bit and maybe let’s use a different
lighting set up here. Here’s a stronger light from the side and we can see it better. So I won’t make this too
strong and let’s also play around with these settings here. So I just played around a little bit until I think this looks good. Also, again we will check
this in the final scene and if needed we can tweak this
again. And this is basically all we need to do just change
the color ramp a bit for the roughness and the bump
for the uneven surface. So, now let’s select the blade over here. And here we wanna add the same
texture as the handle but we wanna tweak the settings again. So what we do again, we select the object go to the library and add
the knife handle material. You can see texture already fits perfectly because the UV Map just
fits perfectly to this knife paint image. But I wanna make
this a metallic material. And again here, since
the handle shouldn’t be a metallic material, we
have to duplicate this. Call this knife blade. You
can see this is now also available in the library here.
And, all I need to do here is set the principle Shader
to metallic, so set this to one. And certainly this
should be more flat. So we reduce the strength quite a lot of the bump map. And we can also play
around with the color ramp. So this should be quite rough
but I also want to have some reflections in here. I think
something like this looks kind of interesting. Again
you can change the lighting setup to see how this
looks in different lighting conditions and I think
this looks quite good. So, and again don’t forget
to save with Control+S. Yeah guys, as you can
see with a simple texture and some nodes we can already create some beautiful looking materials. If you enjoyed this video
make sure to give it a like and subscribe to this
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notified for future videos. If you enjoy our content and
want to extend your knowledge and support this channel
here you can check out our Blender 2.8 launchpad course. There we will use our imagination
to create this beautiful stylized animated 3D scene from scratch. If you want to learn more check the link in the video description. Thanks a lot for watching
guys. Now check the next video where we will create the
material for the bowl and the wooden planks. And
there we will use some special techniques which allows
us to create this material without using a UV Map. So
make sure to check this out. I will see you there. Goodbye. (wooshing, gentle chimes)

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